Which drugs are used first in the treatment of M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

Updated: Mar 05, 2020
  • Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Answer

Initial regimens may include macrolides, rifabutin, and ethambutol. Rifabutin interacts with several protease inhibitors, and ethambutol is not generally used in children younger than 4 years because of the possible development of optic neuritis. However, ethambutol is the only choice in many situations, and it is used when indicated. Amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, rifampin, and streptomycin may also be used for treatment. The best treatment is effective HAART with immune reconstitution, which increases the CD4+ count.


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