How is cryptococcal meningitis diagnosed and treated in pediatric HIV infection?

Updated: Mar 05, 2020
  • Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Answer

Cryptococcal meningitis is uncommon in children, though it should be ruled out when symptoms and/or signs of meningitis are observed or when fever without a clear source causes severe headache. CSF samples should be examined with India ink stain, and the presence of cryptococcal antigen in serum and CSF should be determined. Treatment with amphotericin and flucytosine is necessary, followed by maintenance therapy with fluconazole or itraconazole.


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