What are the neurologic findings in pediatric HIV infection?

Updated: Mar 05, 2020
  • Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Motor delay, hypotonia, hypertonia, and/or pyramidal-tract signs may indicate progressive HIV encephalopathy or opportunistic infection of the CNS.

Spastic diplegia and oral motor dysfunction are early signs of encephalopathy.

Acquired microcephaly with accompanying cerebral atrophy is a poor prognostic sign.

Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord with higher cortical dysfunction occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency.

Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes can occur in children with AIDS, but they seem to be related to infection or other mechanisms other than atherosclerosis or hypercoagulable states, as in the adult HIV-infected population.

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