How is cytokine dysregulation characterized in HIV infection, and what is the result?

Updated: Mar 05, 2020
  • Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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In typical conditions, the stroma of the marrow promotes stem cell proliferation and differentiation by producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-3. HIV-infected stroma produces less G-CSF and IL-3 than normal and produces excessive tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IFN-gamma. This cytokine dysregulation halts the production of badly needed hematopoietic cell lines and causes apoptosis of committed progenitor cells.

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