Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants are used in the treatment of Antithrombin III Deficiency?

Updated: Mar 04, 2020
  • Author: James L Harper, MD; Chief Editor: Hassan M Yaish, MD  more...
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In patients with congenital ATIII deficiency, anticoagulation reduces the incidence of thrombosis. The duration of therapy is likely to be indefinite.

Warfarin (Coumadin)

Inhibits vitamin K–dependent gamma carboxylation of procoagulant proteins factor II, VII, IX, X, as well as the anticoagulant factor, protein C. Tailor dose to maintain an INR in the range of 2-2.5. The length of time to achieve target INR is age dependent. In infants, the median time to achieve the target INR is 5 d and in adolescents, 3 d.

Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

Produced by partial chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Binds to ATIII, enhancing its therapeutic effect. The heparin-ATIII complex binds to and inactivates activated factor X (Xa) and factor II (thrombin).

Does not actively lyse but is able to inhibit further thrombogenesis. Prevents reaccumulation of clot after spontaneous fibrinolysis.

Advantages include intermittent dosing and decreased requirement for monitoring. Heparin antifactor Xa levels may be obtained if needed to establish adequate dosing.

LMWH differs from UFH by having a higher ratio of antifactor Xa to antifactor IIa compared with UFH.

Prevents DVT, which may lead to pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing surgery who are at risk for thromboembolic complications. Used for prevention in hip replacement surgery (during and following hospitalization), knee replacement surgery, or abdominal surgery in those at risk of thromboembolic complications, or in nonsurgical patients at risk of thromboembolic complications secondary to severely restricted mobility during acute illness.

Used for the treatment of DVT or PE in conjunction with warfarin, for the inpatient treatment of acute DVT with or without PE, or for the outpatient treatment of acute DVT without PE.

No use in checking aPTT (drug has wide therapeutic window and aPTT does not correlate with anticoagulant effect). Average duration of treatment is 7-14 d.

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