Which endocrine disorders are associated with Down syndrome?

Updated: Apr 30, 2018
  • Author: Gratias Tom Mundakel, MBBS, DCH; Chief Editor: Maria Descartes, MD  more...
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Answer

Hypothyroidism is common in Down syndrome, occurring in about 1% of newborns, 10% of children, and up to 50% of adults. Causes include congenital hypothyroidism, as well as acquired hypothyroidism secondary to Hashimoto thyroiditis.

Hashimoto thyroiditis that causes hypothyroidism is by far the most common acquired thyroid disorder in patients with Down syndrome. [35] The onset is usually from school age onwards, but onset in infancy is reported. [36] More rarely, Hashimoto thyroiditis can cause hyperthyroidism; [37] the incidence of Graves disease is also increased. [38]

Individuals with Down syndrome are at higher risk of developing type I diabetes mellitus. In addition, infertility is nearly universal in males and can occur in up to 50% of females.


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