Which conditions are associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection?

Updated: Nov 16, 2018
  • Author: Mutaz I Sultan, MBChB, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Answer

H pylori colonizes the stomach, induces inflammatory cytokines, and causes gastric inflammation. Individuals with H pylori– associated antral-predominant gastritis with increased gastric acid production are prone to PUD. [9] In contrast, H pylori pan-predominant gastritis or corpus-predominant gastritis with decreased gastric acid production are more prone to developing gastric atrophy (intestinal metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma).

H pylori has been associated with iron-deficiency anemia. The 2 main hypotheses that potentially explain this relation are (1) sequestration of iron due to antral H pylori infection and (2) decreased non-heme iron absorption caused by hypochlorhydria.

H pylori infection and its association with gastric malignancy have been well described in several epidemiologic studies. [10] However, the course of progression from inflammation to cancer remains unclear. One model describes the stepwise progression of H pylori infection to hypochlorhydria, chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Increased production of the cytokine interleukin 1β has been linked to an increased risk of hypochlorhydria and gastric cancer in infected subjects.

A study found that helicobacter pylori increases cellular proliferation and alters tight junctions by changing the expression of several cancer-related proteins such as beta-catenin, claudin-7, and snail. [11]


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