Which medications in the drug class Antibiotic and antiparasitics agents are used in the treatment of Diarrhea?

Updated: Jan 31, 2020
  • Author: Stefano Guandalini, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Answer

Antibiotic and antiparasitics agents

Antimicrobial agents, in addition to the immune system, help destroy offending organisms. Their use is confined to specific etiologies and/or clinical circumstances.

Cefixime (Suprax)

Potent long-acting oral cephalosporin with increased gram-negative coverage. Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to 1 or more PBPs. Bacteria eventually lyse because of ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic enzymes while cell wall assembly is arrested.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria. Binds to PBPs, inhibiting bacterial cell wall growth.

Cefotaxime (Claforan)

Third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria. Binds to PBPs, inhibiting bacterial cell wall growth.

Erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin)

Bacteriostatic macrolide with activity against most gram-positive organisms and atypical respiratory organisms. Useful for Campylobacter species and vibrio enteritis.

Furazolidone (Furoxone)

Antiparasitic agent with wide coverage. Nitrofuran with antiprotozoal activity. Alternative drug for children because availability in liquid suspension. Most common adverse effects are GI upset and brown discoloration of urine.

Iodoquinol (Vytone, Yodoxin)

Antiparasitic agents with wide coverage.

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

Very active against Giardia species, gram-negative anaerobes, and Entamoeba species. Imidazole ring-based antibiotic active against various anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Often used in combination with other antimicrobial agents except for C difficile enterocolitis).

Paromomycin (Humatin)

Amebicidal and antibacterial aminoglycoside obtained from a strain of Streptomyces rimosus, active in intestinal amebiasis. Recommended for treatment of Diphyllobothrium latum, Taenia saginata, T solium, Dipylidium caninum, and Hymenolepis nana.

Quinacrine (Atabrine)

Very effective antiparasitic against Giardia species.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra, Cotrim)

Folate-synthesis blocker with wide antibiotic coverage. Inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Effective in E coli infections. Dosage form contains 5:1 ratio of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim.

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

Effective treatment (when PO) for antibiotic-associated colitis due to C difficile. However, reserve for individuals whose symptoms are not responding to less expensive and almost equally effective metronidazole.

Tetracycline (Sumycin)

Treats gram-positive and gram-negative organisms as well as mycoplasmal, chlamydial, and rickettsial infections. Good agent in older children who present with severe Yersinia species infection.

Nitazoxanide (Alinia)

Inhibits growth of C parvum sporozoites and oocysts and G lamblia trophozoites. Elicits antiprotozoal activity by interfering with pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction, which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism. Available as a 20-mg/mL oral susp.

Rifaximin (Xifaxan, RedActiv, Flonorm)

Nonabsorbed (< 0.4%), broad-spectrum antibiotic specific for enteric pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract (ie, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic). Rifampin structural analog. Binds to beta-subunit of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis. Indicated for E coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains) associated with travelers' diarrhea.


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