What should prompt additional screening for Vibrio and Plesiomonas infections in the workup of diarrhea?

Updated: Jan 31, 2020
  • Author: Stefano Guandalini, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Answer

History of raw seafood ingestion or foreign travel should prompt additional screening for Vibrio and Plesiomonas species.

Table 4. Common Bacteria and Optimum Culture Mediums (Open Table in a new window)

Organism

Detection Method

Microbiologic Characteristics

Aeromonas species

Blood agar

Oxidase-positive flagellated gram-negative bacillus (GNB)

Campylobacter species

Skirrow agar

Rapidly motile curved gram-negative rod (GNR); Campylobacter jejuni 90% and Campylobacter coli 5% of infections

C difficile

Cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose-egg (CCFE) agar; enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin; latex agglutination (LA) for protein

Anaerobic spore-forming gram-positive rod (GPR); toxin-mediated diarrhea; produces pseudomembranous colitis

C perfringens

None available

Anaerobic spore-forming GPR; toxin-mediated diarrhea

E coli

MacConkey eosin-methylene blue (EMB) or Sorbitol-MacConkey (SM) agar

Lactose-producing GNR

Plesiomonas species

Blood agar

Oxidase-positive GNR

Salmonella species

Blood, MacConkey EMB, xylose-lysine-deoxycholate (XLD), or Hektoen enteric (HE) agar

Nonlactose non–H2S-producing GNR


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