What is the pathogenesis of diarrhea?

Updated: Jan 31, 2020
  • Author: Stefano Guandalini, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Answer

Diarrhea is the reversal of the normal net absorptive status of water and electrolyte absorption to secretion. Such a derangement can be the result of either an osmotic force that acts in the lumen to drive water into the gut or the result of an active secre­tory state induced in the enterocytes. In the former case, diarrhea is osmolar in nature, as is observed after the ingestion of nonabsorbable sugars such as lactulose or lactose in lactose malabsorbers. Instead, in the typical active secretory state, enhanced anion secretion (mostly by the crypt cell compartment) is best exemplified by enterotoxin-­induced diarrhea.


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