Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Colitis?

Updated: Jan 04, 2019
  • Author: David A Piccoli, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Antibiotics

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra DS)

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. The antibacterial activity of TMP-SMZ includes common urinary tract pathogens, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The dose is based on the trimethoprim component.

Ampicillin

Ampicillin has bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms. It is an alternative to amoxicillin when the patient is unable to take medication orally.

Ampicillin-sulbactam (Unasyn)

Ampicillin-sulbactam is a combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor with ampicillin. It covers skin organisms, enteric flora, and anaerobes. It is not ideal for nosocomial pathogens.

Gentamicin

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic for gram-negative coverage. It is used in combination with an agent that covers gram-positive organisms and one that covers anaerobes.

Metronidazole (Flagyl, Flagyl ER)

Metronidazole is an imidazole ring-based antibiotic that is active against various anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. It is used in combination with other antimicrobial agents (except for C difficile enterocolitis).

Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)

Cefoxitin is a second-generation cephalosporin that is indicated for gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rod infections.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum gram-negative activity; it has lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms and higher efficacy against resistant organisms. Ceftriaxone arrests bacterial growth by binding to 1 or more penicillin-binding proteins.

Cefotaxime (Claforan)

Cefotaxime is used for septicemia and treatment of susceptible organisms. It arrests bacterial cell wall synthesis, which, in turn, inhibits bacterial growth. Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin with a gram-negative spectrum of activity; it has lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms.

Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)

Chloramphenicol binds to 50S bacterial-ribosomal subunits and inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

Vancomycin is a potent antibiotic that is directed against gram-positive organisms and is active against Enterococcus species. It is useful in the treatment of septicemia and skin-structure infections. Vancomycin is indicated for patients who are unable to receive or have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or who have infections with resistant staphylococci. For abdominal penetrating injuries, it is combined with an agent active against enteric flora or anaerobes.

To prevent toxicity, the current recommendation is to assay vancomycin trough levels 30 minutes before the fourth dose. Use the creatinine clearance to adjust the dose in patients with renal impairment.


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!