What are the endocrine causes of growth failure?

Updated: Jan 06, 2021
  • Author: Sunil Kumar Sinha, MD; Chief Editor: Robert P Hoffman, MD  more...
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  • Hypothyroidism

  • Primary - Hashimoto thyroiditis, Pendred syndrome

    • Secondary - Thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) deficiency

    • Tertiary - Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency

    • Other - Iatrogenic or environmental radioablation, neoplasm

  • Isolated growth hormone deficiency (GHD) complete absence or insufficiency (partial absence) [9]

    • Autosomal recessive GH1 gene alteration (deletions, frame shift, nonsense, missense, splice shift)

    • Autosomal dominant GH1 gene alteration (nonsense, missense, splice shift, splice enhancer)

    • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

    • X-linked BTX, SOX3

  • Other causes of primary IGF deficiency and IGF- 1 resistance (all isolated GHD usually cause primary IGF deficiency)

    • STAT5b gene mutation

    • IGF1 gene mutation

    • Bioinactive IGF-1 (relative IGF-1 deficiency)

    • IGF1R gene mutation

    • Acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency

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