What is the difference in the pathophysiology of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism?

Updated: Apr 03, 2019
  • Author: Maria G Vogiatzi, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Hypogonadism may occur if the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is interrupted at any level. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism) results if the gonad does not produce the amount of sex steroid sufficient to suppress secretion of LH and FSH at normal levels. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may result from failure of the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator or from inability of the pituitary to respond with secretion of LH and FSH. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is most commonly observed as one aspect of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies resulting from malformations (eg, septooptic dysplasia, other midline defects) or lesions of the pituitary that are acquired postnatally. In 1944, Kallmann and colleagues first described familial isolated gonadotropin deficiency. Recently, many other genetic causes for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism have been identified.

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