What is the physiology of hypogonadism?

Updated: Apr 03, 2019
  • Author: Maria G Vogiatzi, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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The gonads (ovaries or testes) function as part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A hypothalamic pulse generator resides in the arcuate nucleus, which releases luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone (LHRH), which is also termed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), into the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system. Data suggest that a gene named KISS is important in the development of the LHRH-secreting cells. [7, 8]

In response to these pulses of LHRH, the anterior pituitary secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH, which, in turn, stimulate gonadal activity. The increase in gonadal hormones results in lowered FSH and LH secretion at the pituitary level, completing the feedback loop. In the testes, LH stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone, whereas FSH is necessary for tubular growth. In the ovaries, LH acts on theca and interstitial cells to produce progestins and androgens, and FSH acts on granulosa cells to stimulate aromatization of these precursor steroids to estrogen.

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