What are the causes of hypogonadism?

Updated: Apr 03, 2019
  • Author: Maria G Vogiatzi, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can result from the following:

  • Central nervous system (CNS) disorders - Including tumors and miscellaneous causes involving the pituitary/hypothalamic area
  • Genetic causes - Eg, Kallmann syndrome
  • Congenital disorders - Eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Laurence-Moon syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, [1]  and Gaucher disease
  • Acquired disorders - Eg, exercise-induced hypogonadism, psychogenic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), morbid obesity, type II diabetes mellitus

Causes of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism) in males include the following:

  • Klinefelter syndrome
  • Inactivating mutation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Gonadectomy
  • Anorchism and cryptorchidism
  • Testicular biosynthetic defects - 17β-hydroxylase dehydrogenase deficiency, 5α-reductase deficiency, 17-hydroxylase deficiency
  • Defects in testicular determination - Gonadal dysgenesis
  • Other rare disorders of sex development (DSDs) - Ovotesticular DSD, XX males
  • Sertoli-cell-only syndrome
  • LH resistance

Causes of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism) in females include the following:

  • Turner syndrome
  • Inactivating mutations
  • XX and XY gonadal dysgenesis
  • Premature menopause
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Autoimmune oophoritis
  • Resistant ovary
  • Galactosemia
  • Glycoprotein syndrome type 1
  • FSH-receptor gene mutations
  • LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) resistance
  • Polycystic ovarian disease

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