Which medications in the drug class Dextrose and glucose stimulators are used in the treatment of Pediatric Hypoglycemia?

Updated: Sep 12, 2019
  • Author: Robert P Hoffman, MD; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
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Answer

Dextrose and glucose stimulators

Promptly activation of gluconeogenesis is achieved with glucagon. Emergent elevation of blood glucose levels requires IV dextrose.

Dextrose (D-glucose)

Dextrose is used to promptly elevate serum glucose levels. It is a monosaccharide that is absorbed from the intestine and is then distributed, stored, and used by the tissues.

Glucagon (GlucaGen, Gvoke)

This is the first-line home treatment for severe hypoglycemic reactions in patients with diabetes. Glucagon promotes glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, resulting in elevation of blood glucose levels. Glucagon may cause vomiting for 4-6 hours after administration.

Glucagon may be useful when intravenous (IV) access for dextrose administration is problematic. This agent may be administered as part of emergency medical services (EMS) protocol in patients with altered mental status and no IV access. It is also available as a ready-to-use subcutaneous (SC) solution in prefilled syringes or an autoinjector.

Glucagon intranasal (Baqsimi)

Glucagon intranasal activates hepatic glucagon receptors that stimulate cAMP synthesis. This action accelerates hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing an increase in blood glucose levels. Preexisting hepatic glycogen stores are necessary for the drug to be effective in treating hypoglycemia. It is indicated for severe hypoglycemic reactions in adults and children aged 4 y or older with diabetes.


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