Which medications in the drug class Glucose-Elevating Agents are used in the treatment of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Updated: Mar 23, 2021
  • Author: William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
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Answer

Glucose-Elevating Agents

Pancreatic alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce glucagon, a polypeptide hormone. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by promoting hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

Glucagon (GlucaGen HypoKit, Gvoke)

Glucagon elevates blood glucose levels by inhibiting glycogen synthesis and enhancing the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as proteins and fats (gluconeogenesis). It increases hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose in the liver and accelerates hepatic glycogenolysis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Glucagon also increases the force of contraction in the heart and has a relaxant effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Available as a powder for reconstitution. It is also available as a ready-to-use SC solution in prefilled syringes or an autoinjector.

Glucagon intranasal (Baqsimi)

Activates hepatic glucagon receptors that stimulate cAMP synthesis. This action accelerates hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing an increase in blood glucose levels. Preexisting hepatic glycogen stores necessary to be effective in treating hypoglycemia. It is indicated for severe hypoglycemic reactions in adults and children aged 4 y or older with diabetes.


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