What are the long-term complications of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Mar 23, 2021
  • Author: William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
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Long-term complications arise from the damaging effects of prolonged hyperglycemia and other metabolic consequences of insulin deficiency on various tissues. Although long-term complications are rare in childhood, maintaining good control of diabetes is important to prevent complications from developing in later life. [39] The likelihood of developing complications appears to depend on the interaction of factors such as metabolic control, genetic susceptibility, lifestyle (eg, smoking, diet, exercise), pubertal status, and gender. [40, 41] Long-term complications include the following:

  • Retinopathy

  • Cataracts

  • Gastroparesis

  • Progressive renal failure

  • Early coronary artery disease

  • Peripheral vascular disease

  • Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy

  • Increased risk of infection

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