Which autoimmune diseases are associated with pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Jul 03, 2019
  • Author: William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
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Answer

Hypothyroidism affects 2-5% of children with diabetes. [20] Hyperthyroidism affects 1% of children with diabetes; the condition is usually discovered at the time of diabetes diagnosis.

Although Addison disease is uncommon, affecting less than 1% of children with diabetes, it is a life-threatening condition that is easily missed. Addison disease may reduce the insulin requirement and increase the frequency of hypoglycemia. (These effects may also be the result of unrecognized hypothyroidism.)

Celiac disease, associated with an abnormal sensitivity to gluten in wheat products, is probably a form of autoimmune disease and may occur in as many as 5% of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. [21]

Necrobiosis lipoidica is probably another form of autoimmune disease. This condition is usually, but not exclusively, found in patients with type 1 diabetes. Necrobiosis lipoidica affects 1-2% of children and may be more common in children with poor diabetic control.


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