Other than PGAD, what causes acquired pediatric adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease)?

Updated: Mar 10, 2020
  • Author: Kimberly Tafuri, DO; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
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Other acquired causes of adrenal failure include the following:

  • Adrenal hemorrhage [14]

  • Infections (eg, tuberculosis [TB], human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection)

  • Neoplastic destruction

  • Metabolic disorders (eg, various forms of adrenal leukodystrophy [OMIM 300100], [15, 16] Wolman disease [OMIM 278000], Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome [OMIM 270400] [17, 18]

  • Ketoconazole and related antifungals, as well as the anesthetic etomidate, can inhibit steroid synthesis, causing adrenal insufficiency [19, 20, 21]

Hemochromatosis may cause either primary (hereditary form OMIM 235200) or secondary adrenal insufficiency. Among patients with thalassemia or other forms of anemia who have received multiple transfusions, iron deposition in the pituitary and/or adrenal glands may also cause adrenal insufficiency.

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