Which medications in the drug class Topical corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis?

Updated: Jun 03, 2020
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

Topical corticosteroids

In older children and adolescents, treat mild cases of atopic dermatitis with a low-potency (class VI or VII) topical steroid twice a day to decrease inflammation. Examples include hydrocortisone cream or ointment, 1% and 2.5%. For moderate cases of atopic dermatitis, intermediate-potency steroids (class III, IV, V) may be used for brief periods (< 2 wk) to control an eczematous flare. Subsequently, low-potency steroids can be used to maintain remission. For severe cases of atopic dermatitis, pulse therapy with high-potency topical steroids (class II) or oral steroids may be beneficial in adolescents. Use only low-potency steroids on the face, axillae, groin, and intertriginous areas because of increased absorption and increased local steroid adverse effects.

For mild atopic dermatitis in infants, class VI or VII topical steroids should be effective. If the infant has more severe atopic dermatitis, a moderate-potency steroid can be prescribed for as long as 1 week and then tapered down to a lower-potency medication for maintenance therapy. In general, do not treat infants with topical steroids in the high-potency classes (class II or above) without a referral to a dermatologist.

Cordran tape is a corticosteroid-impregnated polyethylene film that enhances topical steroid penetration up to 100-fold. Occlusion of a topical steroid under plastic wrap seems to work equally well. These methods are especially useful for chronic lichenified plaques of atopic dermatitis.

In order to achieve a quick, complete remission of atopic dermatitis symptoms, adequate amounts of topical steroid must be used. Many patients initially use suboptimal amounts of topical steroid products, leading to poor control of their atopic dermatitis symptoms and ultimate discontinuation of their therapy. Approximately 30 grams of medication is needed to cover the entire surface area of an adult body. For children, the fingertip unit (FTU) has been shown to accurately measure an appropriate amount of medication. The FTU is defined as the amount of topical medication that will cover the child's index finger from the tip to the metacarpophalangeal joint. For topical steroids, 1 FTU covers the hand or groin, 2 FTUs cover the face or foot, 3 FTUs cover an arm, 6 FTUs cover a leg, and 14 FTUs cover the trunk.

Atopic dermatitis increases the risk of developing lymphoma (both Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). This risk correlates with increasing severity of disease. An even higher risk of lymphoma occurs in patients with atopic dermatitis treated with topical corticosteroids. The risk reportedly rose with increasing potency of the topical corticosteroid and with longer duration of use.

Hydrocortisone topical (Cortizone, Dermolate, Westcort)

Hydrocortisone topical is an adrenocorticosteroid derivative suitable for application to skin or external mucous membranes. It has mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects, resulting in anti-inflammatory activity.

Triamcinolone topical (Kenalog)

It treats inflammatory dermatosis that is responsive to steroids. It decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing capillary permeability.

Flurandrenolide (Cordran Tape)

Flurandrenolide is an intermediate-potency topical corticosteroid. Each square cm provides 4 mcg.


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