What causes coarctation of the aorta (CoA)?

Updated: Nov 20, 2018
  • Author: Syamasundar Rao Patnana, MD; Chief Editor: Stuart Berger, MD  more...
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Answer

Numerous theories have been proposed for the etiology of coarctation of the aorta, including postnatal ductal constriction, [2, 3] translocation of ductal tissue onto the aorta, [4, 5] and a theory that alterations in intrauterine blood flow cause altered flow through the aortic arch and result in the substrate for coarctation. [2] Coarctation of the aorta manifests when the ductus closes starting at the pulmonary end, with gradual involution of ductal tissue toward the aorta.

Similar to most forms of congenital heart disease (CHD), the etiology of coarctation of the aorta may be explained by multifactorial inheritance hypothesis. [30] The prevalence of coarctation of the aorta in genetic abnormalities such as Turner syndrome (45,X), is as high as 15-20%. Familial patterns of inheritance of coarctation have been reported, as well as for other left heart obstructive lesions. An increase in seasonal occurrence of coarctation of the aorta is reported in September and November.


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