What are the signs and symptoms of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)?

Updated: Oct 16, 2018
  • Author: C Lucy Park, MD; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD  more...
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Clinical manifestations of CVID include the following:

  • Recurrent infections

  • Autoimmune disease

  • Lymphoid hyperplasia

  • Granulomatous diseases

  • Malignancy

Recurrent infections may include the following:

  • Pyogenic sinopulmonary tract infection, especially after puberty

  • In some cases, infections with unusual organisms (eg, Pneumocystis jiroveci, mycobacteria, various fungi)

  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the urinary tract, joints, and deep abscesses

  • Persistent diarrhea and malabsorption caused by Giardia lamblia

  • Severe and recurrent infections with herpes simplex

  • Unusual enteroviral infections with a chronic meningoencephalitis and a dermatomyositis-like illness; presenting symptoms are either acute or insidious, with signs of encephalitis, seizures, headache, sensory motor disturbances, and personality changes

Autoimmune conditions in patients with CVID are as follows:

  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

  • Hemolytic anemia

  • More rarely, autoimmune neutropenia

  • Other solid organ–specific autoimmune diseases (eg, pernicious anemia, thyroid diseases, vitiligo)

  • Insulin-dependent diabetes

  • Psoriasis

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

  • Uveitis

  • Severe gastroenteropathy with severe malabsorption, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (eg, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease)

Physical examination findings may include the following:

  • Generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly

  • Failure to thrive in young children, secondary to frequent infection and increased energy expenditure

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

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