What causes piriformis syndrome?

Updated: Dec 21, 2018
  • Author: Shishir Shah, DO; Chief Editor: Sherwin SW Ho, MD  more...
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See the list below:

  • Trauma to the buttocks or gluteal region is the most common cause of piriformis syndrome.

  • Skiers, truck drivers, tennis players, and long-distance bikers are at high risk.

  • In Morton foot, the prominent head of the second metatarsal causes foot instability and a reactive contraction of the external rotators of the hip during gait.

  • Spinal stenosis can lead to bilateral piriformis tenderness.

  • Anatomic variations of the divisions of the sciatic nerve above, below, and through the belly of the piriformis muscle may be causative factors. [4]

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