What is initial treatment for epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Updated: May 08, 2020
  • Author: Quoc A Nguyen, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Answer

Initial treatment begins with direct pressure. The nostrils are squeezed together for 5-30 minutes straight, without frequent peeking to see if the bleeding is controlled. Usually, 5-10 minutes is sufficient.

Patients should keep their heads elevated but not hyperextended because hyperextension may cause bleeding into the pharynx and possible aspiration. This maneuver works more than 90% of the time.

If direct pressure is not sufficient, gauze moistened with epinephrine at a ratio of 1:10,000 or phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) may be placed in the affected nostril to help vasoconstrict and achieve hemostasis.


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