What causes epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Updated: May 08, 2020
  • Author: Quoc A Nguyen, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Answer

Causes of epistaxis can be divided into local causes (eg, trauma, mucosal irritation, septal abnormality, inflammatory diseases, tumors), systemic causes (eg, blood dyscrasias, arteriosclerosis, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia), and idiopathic causes. Local trauma is the most common cause, followed by facial trauma, foreign bodies, nasal or sinus infections, and prolonged inhalation of dry air. Children usually present with epistaxis due to local irritation or recent upper respiratory infection (URI).

In a retrospective cohort study of 2405 patients with epistaxis (3666 total episodes), Purkey et al used multivariate analysis to identify a series of risk factors for nosebleeds. The likelihood of epistaxis was found to increase in patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, hypertension, hematologic malignancy, coagulopathy, or, as mentioned, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The investigators also found increased nosebleeds in association with older age and colder weather. [10]

Similarly, a German study, by Seidel et al, found that the rate of patients receiving a first epistaxis diagnosis at an otolaryngologic practice was lowest in summer, with the rate increasing in fall and winter and peaking in February, March, and April. The study, which involved 114 otolaryngologic practices, reported a rate of 7.22 epistaxis patients per practice in August 2016, the lowest figure that year, compared with a peak rate of 14.89 patients per practice, in February 2016. [11]


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