What is the anatomy of the nose in reference to epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Updated: May 08, 2020
  • Author: Quoc A Nguyen, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Answer

The nose has a rich vascular supply, with substantial contributions from the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA).

The ECA system supplies blood to the nose via the facial and internal maxillary arteries. The superior labial artery is one of the terminal branches of the facial artery. This artery subsequently contributes to the blood supply of the anterior nasal floor and anterior septum through a septal branch.

The internal maxillary artery enters the pterygomaxillary fossa and divides into 6 branches: posterior superior alveolar, descending palatine, infraorbital, sphenopalatine, pterygoid canal, and pharyngeal.

The descending palatine artery descends through the greater palatine canal and supplies the lateral nasal wall. It then returns to the nose via a branch in the incisive foramen to provide blood to the anterior septum. The sphenopalatine artery enters the nose near the posterior attachment of the middle turbinate to supply the lateral nasal wall. It also gives off a branch to provide blood supply to the septum.

The ICA contributes to nasal vascularity through the ophthalmic artery. This artery enters the bony orbit via the superior orbital fissure and divides into several branches. The posterior ethmoidal artery exits the orbit through the posterior ethmoidal foramen, located 2-9 mm anterior to the optic canal. The larger anterior ethmoidal artery leaves the orbit through the anterior ethmoidal foramen (see the image below).

Nasal vascular anatomy Nasal vascular anatomy

The anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries cross the ethmoidal roof to enter the anterior cranial fossa and then descend into the nasal cavity through the cribriform plate. Here, they divide into lateral and septal branches to supply the lateral nasal wall and the septum.

The Kiesselbach plexus, or Little’s area, is an anastomotic network of vessels located on the anterior cartilaginous septum. It receives blood supply from both the ICA and the ECA. [7] Many of the arteries supplying the septum have anastomotic connections at this site.


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