What is the functional anatomy of the metatarsals relevant to metatarsal stress fractures?

Updated: Jan 16, 2019
  • Author: Valerie E Cothran, MD; Chief Editor: Craig C Young, MD  more...
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Answer

The second and third metatarsals are relatively fixed in position within the foot; the first, fourth, and fifth metatarsals are relatively mobile. More stress is placed on the second and third metatarsals during ambulation; thus, these bones are at increased risk for stress fractures.

The fifth metatarsal, which is approximately 1.5 cm from the proximal pole of the bone, bears greater stress in those who oversupinate when they walk or run. The fifth metatarsal also has a diminished blood supply and, thus, a decreased ability to heal. [8, 9]

Stress fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal must be distinguished from proximal avulsion fractures ("pseudo-Jones" fractures) and Jones fractures. The proximal avulsion fracture is usually associated with a lateral ankle strain and occurs at the insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon. The true Jones fracture is an acute fracture of the proximal diametaphyseal junction.


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