What are cranial nerve substitution techniques for facial nerve repair?

Updated: Nov 28, 2018
  • Author: Tang Ho, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Cranial nerve substitution techniques include hypoglossal-facial (XII-VII) anastomosis and cross-face grafting. The spinal accessory–facial anastomosis is another well-described procedure, but it is largely relegated to historical status or situations in which other options are not available.

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