Which patient groups are at highest risk for MDMA toxicity?

Updated: May 30, 2020
  • Author: In-Hei Hahn, MD, FACEP, FACMT; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
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MDMA is now a global phenomenon and is used all over the world. Traditionally, use has been associated with white males; however, the demographic has changed with the popularity of raves and now includes more females and large percentages of Asian, African American, and Hispanic persons

Typically, most users are 16-25 years of age. However, as of 2015, more than 2% of US eighth graders had reported using MDMA at least once. [23] Reports also document MDMA toxicity among patients in the fifth and sixth decades of life.

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