When is inpatient treatment of opioid toxicity indicated?

Updated: Jul 19, 2021
  • Author: Everett Stephens, MD; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
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Answer

Because the half-life of naloxone is shorter than that of many opioids (a particular concern with exposure to long-acting opioid preparations), any patient who is exhibiting significant respiratory depression, recurrent sedation, or any other complicating factors of opioid ingestion should be admitted for a minimum of 12-24 hours of observation. Appropriate cardiorespiratory monitoring should be initiated until the effects of opioid toxicity subside.

Most physicians recommend admission of any patient who requires a second dose of naloxone or who fails a 6-hour observation period in the ED. Some authorities recommend admission of patients with heroin overdose who present with significant respiratory depression caused by the increased risk of acute lung injury. However, this complication usually is evident within minutes of patient arrival. Thus, the patient who is asymptomatic following heroin overdose and has not demonstrated recrudescent toxicity during a 6-hour period of observation may be discharged safely.


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