What is the role of activated charcoal in the treatment of opioid toxicity?

Updated: Jul 19, 2021
  • Author: Everett Stephens, MD; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
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Answer

Activated charcoal is the GI decontamination method of choice for patients with opiate intoxication following ingestion. Because of impairment of gastric emptying and GI motility produced by opiate intoxication, activated charcoal still may be effective when patients present late following ingestion. Decontamination with activated charcoal should be attempted in all symptomatic patients (as long as it is not contraindicated), regardless of the time of ingestion in relation to hospital presentation.

The airway has to be protected (ET tube, adequate gag reflex, appropriate level of consciousness) prior to administration of charcoal in order to prevent converting relatively benign opioid overdose into catastrophic charcoal aspiration. Although orogastric lavage is not often necessary, it may be considered in addition to activated charcoal when patients present obtunded within 1 hour of ingestion.


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