When should co-ingestants be considered in the differential diagnoses of opioid toxicity?

Updated: Jul 19, 2021
  • Author: Everett Stephens, MD; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
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Illicit use of narcotics for recreation or the use of methadone for opioid dependence can be associated with co-ingestants including cocaine, benzodiazepines, cyclic antidepressants, [31]  methamphetamine, or other substances. [20] Suspicion of co-ingestants should be nurtured when the patient's clinical course does not conform closely to known opiate effect profiles, especially given the cardiac toxicity of the tricyclics.

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