What is the pathophysiology of opioid toxicity?

Updated: Jul 19, 2021
  • Author: Everett Stephens, MD; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
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Answer

Activation of opioid receptors results in inhibition of synaptic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Opioids bind to and enhance neurotransmission at three major classes of opioid receptors. It is also recognized that several poorly defined classes of opioid receptors exist, with relatively minor effects.

The physiological effects of opioids are mediated principally through mu and kappa receptors in the CNS and periphery. Mu receptor effects include analgesia, euphoria, respiratory depression, and miosis. Kappa receptor effects include analgesia, miosis, respiratory depression, and sedation.

Two other opiate receptors that mediate the effects of certain opiates include sigma and delta sites. Sigma receptors mediate dysphoria, hallucinations, and psychosis; delta receptor agonism results in euphoria, analgesia, and seizures. The opiate antagonists (eg, naloxone, nalmefene, naltrexone) antagonize the effects at all four opiate receptors.

Common classifications divide the opioids into agonist, partial agonist, or agonist-antagonist agents and natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic. Opioids decrease the perception of pain, rather than eliminate or reduce the painful stimulus. Inducing slight euphoria, opioid agonists reduce the sensitivity to exogenous stimuli. The GI tract and the respiratory mucosa provide easy absorption for most opioids.

Peak effects generally are reached in 10 minutes with the intravenous route, 10-15 minutes after nasal insufflation (eg, butorphanol, heroin), 30-45 minutes with the intramuscular route, 90 minutes with the oral route, and 2-4 hours after dermal application (ie, fentanyl). Following therapeutic oral doses, most absorption occurs in the small intestine. Toxic doses may have delayed absorption because of delayed gastric emptying and slowed gut motility.

Most opioids are metabolized by hepatic conjugation to inactive compounds that are excreted readily in the urine. Certain opioids (eg, fentanyl, buprenorphine) are more lipid soluble and can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body. All opioids have a prolonged duration of action in patients with liver disease (eg, cirrhosis) because of impaired hepatic metabolism. This may lead to drug accumulation and opioid toxicity.

The hepatic CYP2D6 enzyme metabolizes codeine, converting it to its active metabolite, morphine. Individuals who carry more than two normal-function copies of the CYP2D6 gene—so-called ultrarapid metabolizers—can metabolize codeine to morphine more rapidly and more completely, and thus may develop morphine toxicity even with normal doses of codeine. [13] Tramadol is also metabolized by CYP2D6, and ultrarapid metabolizers are at increased risk for opioid toxicity from it. [14]

Opiate metabolites are excreted in the urine. Impaired renal function can lead to toxic effects from accumulated drug or active metabolites (eg, normeperidine).

Long-acting opioids also may increase mortality from cardiorespiratory and other causes. In a retrospective cohort study between 1999 and 2012 of Tennessee Medicaid patients with chronic noncancer pain and no evidence of palliative or end-of-life care, hazard ratios were 1.64 for total mortality, 1.65 for cardiovascular deaths, and 4.16 for death during the first 30 days of therapy, in patients prescribed long-acting opioids for chronic noncancer pain, compared with anticonvulsants or cyclic antidepressants. [15]


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