What is the role of smoke inhalation in the etiology of cyanide toxicity?

Updated: May 30, 2020
  • Author: Inna Leybell, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Miller, MD  more...
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Answer

Smoke inhalation during house or industrial fires is the major source of cyanide poisoning in the United States. Individuals with smoke inhalation from enclosed space fires who have soot in the mouth or nose, altered mental status, or hypotension may have significant cyanide poisoning (blood cyanide concentrations >40 mmol/L or approximately 1 mg/L).

Many compounds containing nitrogen and carbon may produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas when burned. Some natural compounds (eg, wool, silk) produce HCN as a combustion product. [6, 16] Household plastics (eg, melamine in dishware, acrylonitrile in plastic cups), polyurethane foam in furniture cushions, and many other synthetic compounds may produce lethal concentrations of cyanide when burned under appropriate conditions of oxygen concentration and temperature.


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