Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Cocaine Toxicity?

Updated: Sep 01, 2018
  • Author: Lynn Barkley Burnett, MD, EdD, LLB(c); Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Answer

Benzodiazepines

By increasing the action of GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, these drugs may depress all levels of the CNS, including the limbic system and reticular formation.

Lorazepam (Ativan)

DOC for status epilepticus because it persists in CNS longer than diazepam. Rate of injection should not exceed 2 mg/min. May be administered IM if unable to obtain vascular access.

Midazolam (Versed)

Alternative for termination of refractory status epilepticus. Because water soluble, takes approximately 3 times longer than diazepam to peak EEG effects; therefore, clinician must wait 2-3 min to fully evaluate sedative effects before initiating procedure or repeating dose. Has twice the affinity for benzodiazepine receptors as diazepam. May be administered IM if unable to obtain vascular access.

Diazepam (Valium)

Depresses all levels of CNS (eg, limbic and reticular formation), possibly by increasing GABA activity. Third-line agent for agitation or seizures because of shortened duration of anticonvulsive effects and accumulation of active metabolites that may prolong sedation. Diazepam should not be administered intramuscularly, because absorption is unreliable.


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