How is hyperthermia treated in cocaine toxicity?

Updated: Sep 01, 2018
  • Author: Lynn Barkley Burnett, MD, EdD, LLB(c); Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Answer

Recognize and treat hyperthermia as a distinct entity. If psychostimulant-intoxicated patients do not die as a result of cardiac or cerebrovascular complications, the next most important steps in preventing further morbidity are control of hyperthermia and treatment of rhabdomyolysis. Assess the patient's core body temperature early in the evaluation and maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperthermia. In the setting of serious hyperthermia, continuously monitor the core body temperature.

Immersion of the patient in an ice bath is the best way to rapidly lower the body temperature in severe hyperthermia. Hyperthermia may also be treated with convection cooling, which involves spraying the patient's exposed body with tepid water as fans circulate air. Tepid water prevents maladaptive shivering that may be induced by conduction cooling methods, although ice packs, ice water gastric lavage, or cooling blankets may also be used. Direct efforts at reducing body temperature to 101ºF in 30-45 minutes.

Do not use restraints (physical or pharmacologic) that interfere with dissolution of heat. If necessary, use light hand and foot restraints. Ensure adequacy of hydration and electrolytes. Benzodiazepines are an effective and safe pharmacologic restraint in these patients. Given parenterally, with the usual precautions, they rapidly calm hyperactive patients.

Do not administer phenothiazines. Goldfrank, Flomenbaum, Lewin, and Weisman apply this injunction to butyrophenones as well. [56] Contrary views are, however, expressed in the literature. Callaway and Clark maintain that concerns about the potentiation of drug-induced seizures by butyrophenone neuroleptics (eg, haloperidol) may be exaggerated because such drugs have less effect on human seizure threshold than phenothiazines, and they interfere less with sweat-mediated evaporative cooling in drug-induced hyperthermia. [19] Although Callaway and Clark believe that further studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of butyrophenones in the treatment of psychostimulant overdose, [19] Colucciello and Tomaszewski claim that haloperidol is effective in treating cocaine-related agitation and that no clinical data proscribe its use, theoretic concerns notwithstanding. [57]

Monitor patients with hyperthermia in the ED for several hours if they are not being admitted.


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