How are dystonic reactions treated in cocaine toxicity?

Updated: Sep 01, 2018
  • Author: Lynn Barkley Burnett, MD, EdD, LLB(c); Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Answer

Emotional distress can exacerbate dystonic reactions, whereas relaxation may reduce the intensity of such attacks. Using a calm reasoned approach in a quiet room markedly complements the effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions.

Dopamine and acetylcholine have mutually antagonistic functions in the nigrostriatal system. Although diphenhydramine, with its anticholinergic properties, is the drug of choice for most dystonic reactions, it should be used with caution in cocaine toxicity. Antihistamines cause hyperthermia by central (eg, hypothalamic) and peripheral (inhibition of sweating and muscular rigidity) effects; cocaine also causes hyperthermia. Diphenhydramine and cocaine are sodium channel blockers. Therefore, coadministration of an antihistamine in the setting of cocaine use may potentiate a molecular pathophysiological cascade that exacerbates end-organ dysfunction.

Benzodiazepines, with their anxiolytic and muscle relaxant properties, are alternative drugs for the treatment of dystonia. Although they only treat the manifestations of dystonias and not the pathophysiology underlying their development; the advantage of using benzodiazepines lies in their safety.


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