What is the role of fibrinolysis in the treatment of cocaine toxicity?

Updated: Sep 01, 2018
  • Author: Lynn Barkley Burnett, MD, EdD, LLB(c); Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Answer

Be mindful that as many as 43% of patients with cocaine-related chest pain meet standard ECG criteria for fibrinolysis despite being cardiac marker negative for infarction; a high percentage of such patients have early repolarization.

Of additional importance, an increased incidence of mycotic aneurysms and CNS mass lesions may lead to an increased incidence of hemorrhagic complications in these patients. When evaluating patients for fibrinolytic therapy, remember that a history of intravenous drug use poses a relatively high risk for the possibility of coexisting vascular pathology. [52] Obtain a detailed history and perform physical and ancillary testing, as appropriate, directed at identifying endocarditis, septic pulmonary emboli, and pseudoaneurysm.

AHA guidelines state that intracoronary administration of fibrinolytics is preferred to blind peripheral administration in patients with drug-induced acute coronary syndrome. Fibrinolysis in the presence of hypertension or CNS vasculitis may be dangerous, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) may be a safer alternative when revascularization is indicated.

In light of the above confounding factors, the AHA Textbook of Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider indicates that cardiac catheterization is recommended by many experts.

Fibrinolysis should thus be reserved for patients who cannot receive percutaneous coronary intervention within the requisite time and who have low risk for cerebrovascular bleeding and other hemorrhagic complications of fibrinolytic therapy.


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