What are the treatment guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on GOLD patient grouping?

Updated: Nov 13, 2020
  • Author: Paul Kleinschmidt, MD; Chief Editor: Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP  more...
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The GOLD patient group-based management recommendations include the following [10] :

  • Group A-D: Reduction of risk factors (influenza and pneumococcal vaccine); smoking cessation; physical activity; short-acting anticholinergic or short-acting beta-adrenergic agonists as needed
  • Group B: Long-acting anticholinergics or long-acting beta-adrenergic agonists; cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
  • Group C: Inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-adrenergic agonists or long-acting anticholinergics; cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
  • Group D: Inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-adrenergic agonists and/or long-acting anticholinergics; cardiopulmonary rehabilitation; long-term oxygen therapy (if criteria met); consider surgical options such as lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS)

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