What is the pathophysiology of pediatric pyloric stenosis?

Updated: Nov 13, 2018
  • Author: Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Kirsten A Bechtel, MD  more...
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Marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the 2 (circular and longitudinal) muscular layers of the pylorus occurs, leading to narrowing of the gastric antrum. The pyloric canal becomes lengthened, and the whole pylorus becomes thickened. The mucosa is usually edematous and thickened. In advanced cases, the stomach becomes markedly dilated in response to near-complete obstruction.

The causes of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis are multifactorial. [2] Both environmental factors and hereditary factors are believed to be contributory. Possible etiologic factors include deficiency of nitric oxide synthase containing neurons, abnormal myenteric plexus innervation, infantile hypergastrinemia, exposure to macrolide antibiotics, lack of exposure to vasoactive intestinal peptide in breast milk, and hypersensitivity to motilin.

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