What is the anatomy of the glenohumeral joint relevant to shoulder arthrocentesis?

Updated: Dec 10, 2019
  • Author: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD  more...
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Answer

The practitioner performing the procedure should be familiar with the anatomy of the glenohumeral joint and the surrounding structures so as to minimize the risk of complications.

The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is formed by the humeral head and the glenoid fossa of the scapula. It is bounded by the acromion. The subdeltoid bursa lies under the deltoid muscle and covers the lateral and superior aspect of the proximal humerus. The neurovascular bundle lies medially in the axilla.

Three glenohumeral ligaments exist, as follows:

  • Superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL)
  • Middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL)
  • Inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL)

The SGHL has a variable origin and inserts on the humerus near the lesser tubercle; it resists inferior translation of the humeral head in the adducted shoulder. The MGHL originates from the labrum and inserts on the humerus medial to the lesser tubercle; it resists inferior translation in the adducted and externally rotated shoulder. The IGHL originates from the labrum and the adjacent glenoid neck and inserts on the anatomic neck of the humerus; it resists humeral head anterior and posterior translation. (See Shoulder Joint Anatomy.)


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