What are the categories of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Updated: Nov 01, 2018
  • Author: Lawrence S Chin, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Brian H Kopell, MD  more...
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Answer

The extent of injury is defined by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (modified from the Frankel classification), using the following categories: [1, 2]

  • A = Complete: No sensory or motor function is preserved in sacral segments S4-S5 [3]

  • B = Incomplete: Sensory, but not motor, function is preserved below the neurologic level and extends through sacral segments S4-S5

  • C = Incomplete: Motor function is preserved below the neurologic level, and most key muscles below the neurologic level have a muscle grade of less than 3

  • D = Incomplete: Motor function is preserved below the neurologic level, and most key muscles below the neurologic level have a muscle grade that is greater than or equal to 3

  • E = Normal: Sensory and motor functions are normal


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