When is endotracheal intubation indicated in drowning patients?

Updated: Jun 19, 2019
  • Author: G Patricia Cantwell, MD, FCCM; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Other criteria for endotracheal intubation include the following:

  • Altered level of consciousness and inability to protect airway or handle secretions

  • High alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient: PaO2 of 60-80 mm Hg or less on 15 L oxygen nonrebreathing mask

  • Respiratory failure: PaCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg

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