Which medications in the drug class Toxoids are used in the treatment of Animal Bites in Emergency Medicine?

Updated: Sep 18, 2018
  • Author: Alisha Perkins Garth, MD; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Answer

Toxoids

Tetanus results from elaboration of an exotoxin from Clostridium tetani. A booster injection in previously immunized individuals is recommended to prevent this potentially lethal syndrome. Patients who may not have been immunized against C tetani products (eg, immigrants, the elderly) should receive tetanus immune globulin.

Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Adacel, Boostrix)

The vaccine combination tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine promotes active immunity to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis by inducing production of specific neutralizing antibodies and antitoxins. It is indicated for active booster immunization for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis prevention for persons aged 10-64 years (Adacel approved for 11-64 y, Boostrix approved for 10-18 y). It is the preferred vaccine for adolescents scheduled for booster.

Tetanus toxoid adsorbed or fluid

The tetanus toxoid vaccine is no longer available in the United States.

It is used to induce active immunity against tetanus in selected patients. The immunizing agent of choice for most adults and children older than 7 years are tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. It is necessary to administer booster doses to maintain tetanus immunity throughout life.

The CDC recommends Td for pregnant patients who have urgent an indication tor tetanus toxoid or diphtheria toxoid vaccination.

In children and adults, it can be administered into deltoid or midlateral thigh muscles. In infants, the preferred site of administration is the mid thigh laterally.


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