What is the role of serum chemistry in the diagnosis of metabolic acidosis?

Updated: Oct 05, 2018
  • Author: Antonia Quinn, DO; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate levels are used in the calculation of serum anion gap (SIG). Phosphate, magnesium, as well as serum albumin levels are used to calculate the SIG.

Hyperkalemia often complicates metabolic acidosis. It commonly is seen with inorganic acidosis (ie, non-AG). Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often presents with hyperkalemia that does not parallel the acidosis; in this case, hyperkalemia results from insulin deficiency and the effects of hyperosmolality. Lactic acidosis and other forms of organic acidosis generally do not present with a significant potassium shift.

Glucose level is commonly elevated in DKA, and it may be low, normal, or mildly elevated in alcoholic ketoacidosis.

The BUN and creatinine levels are elevated in uremic acidosis.

CBC count

An elevation of the WBC count is a nonspecific finding, but it should prompt consideration of septicemia, which causes lactic acidosis.

Severe anemia with compromised O2 delivery may cause lactic acidosis.


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