What are the possible complications of hyponatremia?

Updated: Dec 28, 2018
  • Author: Kartik Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Complications related to hyponatremia include rhabdomyolysis, seizures, permanent neurologic sequelae related to ongoing seizures or cerebral edema, respiratory arrest, and death.

A retrospective study by Brouns et al indicated that among elderly internal medicine patients presenting to the emergency department, hyponatremia is a risk factor for hospital admission, longer hospital stay, and 3-month mortality, with moderate hyponatremia being particularly associated with frailty and mortality. In a comparison of hyponatremic elderly patients with those who did not have clinically relevant hyponatremia, admission rates were 93.4% versus 72.9%, respectively; hospital stay was 8 days versus 6 days, respectively; and 3-month survival rate was 74% versus 83%, respectively. [20]

Complications related to therapy of hyponatremia include fluid overload and the osmotic demyelination syndrome.


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