Which medications in the drug class Bisphosphonates are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Updated: Apr 11, 2018
  • Author: Thomas E Green, DO, MPH, MMM, CPE, FACEP, FACOEP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Bisphosphonates

These compounds are analogs of pyrophosphate that act by binding to hydroxyapatite in bone matrix, thereby inhibiting the dissolution of crystals. These agents prevent osteoclast attachment to bone matrix and interfere with osteoclast recruitment and viability.

Pamidronate (Aredia)

Mechanism of action is inhibition of normal and abnormal bone resorption; appears to inhibit bone resorption without inhibiting bone formation and mineralization. Potent agent that has several regimens for administration. Adverse effects of IV administration include mild transient increases in temperature, leukopenia, and mild reduction in serum phosphate levels. PO maintenance therapy is available after acute event has resolved, but this therapy is experimental. With acute hypercalcemia, all of these agents are effective; pamidronate may be preferable because of its potency and efficacy..

Zoledronic acid (Zometa)

Inhibits bone resorption, possibly by acting on osteoclasts or osteoclast precursors. Median duration of complete response (maintaining normalized calcium levels) and time to relapse reported as 32 and 30 d, respectively. Indicated for hypercalcemia of malignancy.

Etidronate (Didronel)

Reduces bone formation; does not appear to alter renal tubular reabsorption of calcium. Does not affect hypercalcemia in patients with hyperparathyroidism where increased calcium reabsorption may increase blood calcium levels. Response generally observed within first 48 h; more effective if patient is well hydrated before initial dose. If patient responds well before 7 d, therapy can be discontinued. Generally well tolerated; most common adverse effect is a transient elevation of serum creatinine and phosphorous. PO therapy is experimental and not always effective.


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