How common is adrenocortical insufficiency in the US?

Updated: Oct 11, 2018
  • Author: Kevin M Klauer, DO, EJD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Primary adrenocortical insufficiency is an uncommon disorder with an incidence in Western populations near 50 cases per 1,000,000 persons. With the advent of widespread corticosteroid use, however, secondary adrenocortical insufficiency due to steroid withdrawal is much more common. Approximately 6,000,000 persons in the United States are considered to have undiagnosed adrenal insufficiency, which is clinically significant only during times of physiologic stress.

Primary adrenocortical insufficiency has multiple etiologies; however, 80% of cases in the United States are caused by autoimmune adrenal destruction. Glandular infiltration by tuberculosis is the second most frequent etiology.

In patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency due to idiopathic autoimmune lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of other associated endocrine disorders must be entertained. Consider polyglandular autoimmune disorders (PGAs) such as Schmidt syndrome.

Schmidt syndrome (PGA type II) includes adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune thyroid disease, and, occasionally, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Adrenal insufficiency usually occurs in these patients when they are older than 20 years. In approximately 40-50% of patients with PGA II, the first manifestation of the syndrome is adrenal insufficiency.

PGA type I includes hypoparathyroidism and mucocutaneous candidiasis in conjunction with adrenal insufficiency. The full triad may manifest in approximately 30% of patients with PGA type I.


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