What is the role of medications in the etiology of gingivitis?

Updated: Jan 18, 2018
  • Author: James M Stephen, MD, FAAEM, FACEP; Chief Editor: Jeff Burgess, DDS, MSD  more...
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Drug-induced causes

  • The list of drugs that cause gingivitis and gingival bleeding is extensive.

  • Gingival bleeding may occur with the use of anticoagulants and fibrinolytic agents.

  • Phenytoin, oral contraceptive agents, and calcium channel blockers may cause gingival hyperplasia.

  • Gingivitis has been observed with use of protease inhibitors (eg, saquinavir, ritonavir), vitamin A and analogues, danazol, pentamidine, misoprostol, methotrexate, and gold compounds.

  • Gingivostomatitis has been observed in exposure to arsenic, gold, bismuth, mercury, nickel, sulfur dioxide, lead, thallium, zinc, methyl violet, and topical chlorhexidine.

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